Video and audio

BBC News (2010): Surrogacy in Anand, India

BBC News (2015): “Three person babies”

two radio Documentaries on Surrogacy


Reading List


*Carsten, J. 1995. The substance of kinship and the heat of the hearth: feeding, personhood, and relatedness among Malays in Pulau Langkawi. American Ethnologist. 22(2): 223-241.

*Fox, R. 1984 (1967) Chapters 1 & 4, Kinship and marriage. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

*Schneider, D. 1980 (1968). American Kinship: A Cultural Account. Chicago: University Press. and/or *Schneider, D. 1984. A critique of the study of kinship. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.

Yanagisako S. & J. Collier 1994. Gender and Kinship Reconsidered: towards a unified analysis. In. R. Borosfsky, ed. Assessing Cultural Anthropology. London: McGraw Hill.


Clarke, Morgan. 2007. The modernity of Milk Kinship in Social Anthropology/Anthropologie Social 15(3): 287-304.

—– 2008 New Kinship, Islam, and the liberal tradition: sexual morality and new reproductive technology in Lebanon. JRAI. (NS) 14: 153-69.

Diemberger, Hildegard. 1993. Blood, sperm, soul and the mountain – gender relations, kinship and cosmovision among the Khumbo (N.E. Nepal). In. T. del Valle, ed. Gendered Anthropology. London: Routledge.

Howell, Signe. 2007. Kinning of Foreigners: transnational adoption in a global perspective. Oxford: Berghahn. (pick an ethnographic chapter)

Mosko, Mark. 1998. On “virgin birth”, comparability and anthropological method. Current Anthropology 35: 685-7.

Lambek, Michael. 2011. Kinship as gift and theft: Acts of succession in Mayotte and Ancient Israel. American Ethnologist 38: 2-16.

Volkman, Toby Alice. ed. 2005. Cultures of transnational adoption. Duke University Press.

Zelizer, Viviana 2005. The Purchase of Intimacy. Princeton University Press. (skim this to get the general point and to find an ethnographic description that you find convincing)

Further Reading

Fenella Cannell 1990. Concepts of parenthood: the Warnock Report, the Gillick Debate, and modern myths. American Ethnologist 17: 667-86.

Janet Carsten (ed), 2000 Cultures of relatedness: new approaches to the study of kinship. Cambridge: University Press. (esp. introduction & chapter by Edwards and Strathern)

Sahlins, Marshall. “What Kinship Is (Part One).” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 17, no. 1 (2011): 2-19.

Sahlins, Marshall. “What Kinship Is (Part Two).” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 17, no. 2 (2011): 227-42.